What You Need To Know About LED Electrical Lighting

Converting to LED lights: everything you need to know

What lights do you use at home?

I’m 100% LED now – even my fridge light is LED. You don’t need to go that far – I’m a little obsessed! It has taken me a couple of years of learning to get it right.

The most important lesson has been light ‘temperature’. This is measured in Kelvin (you’ll find it on the packet of any light bulb). I like a warm white, much like the old-fashioned tungsten bulbs. This is about 2700 Kelvin (K).

It’s interesting that folks from colder climates tend to favour a warm light, while folks from hotter climates prefer something more white or blue. Now I understand the colour I like, I generally get the right bulb each time.

One of the reasons I switched to LED is that I have solar panels on my roof, which contribute to the electricity demand of my house during the day. However after I bought a real-time energy meter I quickly learned that I was using a crazy amount of electricity at night – when my panels don’t help. With a bit of investigation I realised my lighting was drawing a lot of electricity

It depends if they are low-voltage or mains. You can tell this as low voltage bulbs have ‘pins’ (right – see below) to connect them and mains have ‘pegs’ (left). If they are pegs it’s not a problem, but I’d suggest you replace them all anyway. Halogen bulbs use so much electricity for the light they produce – just feel their heat – that it’s a false economy to wait until they blow to replace them.


What does LED stand for?

LED is short for light-emitting diode.

How long do LEDs last?

LEDs are notable for being extremely long-lasting products. Many LEDs have a rated life of up to 50,000 hours. This is approximately 50 times longer than a typical incandescent, 20-25 times longer than a typical halogen, and 8-10 times longer than a typical CFL. Used 12 hours a day, a 50,000 bulb will last more than 11 years. Used 8 hours a day, it will last 17 years

Where can LEDs be used?

They can be used almost anywhere. LED replacements are already available for bulb types such as A-shape, PAR reflectors, MR reflectors, decorative, undercabinet, and more. When used on dimmers, particularly dimming systems that support many bulbs, we suggest testing a few LEDs first to test compatibility.

Should LEDs be used in enclosed fixtures?

Enclosed fixtures are defined as not only air tight, but also are fixtures that are enclosed on the side, rear and open in the front, such as many track heads. LEDs that are used in fixtures where there’s less than 1/2″ around the circumference of the lamp when installed in the fixture are also considered an enclosed application. If you plan to use LEDs in these types of applications you should use an LED that’s rated for enclosed fixtures. Using an LED lamp not rated for enclosed fixtures in this type of application may cause the LED lamp to flicker and will dramatically reduce the life of the lamp.

What are the advantages of switching to LED?

The advantages of switching to LED are numerous. Here are just some of the benefits: LEDs use much less electricity than other bulbs, have extremely long rated lives, produce very little heat, do not emit UV or infrared, contain no mercury, are resistant to shock and vibration, and can operate effectively in extremely cold environments. For more information the advantages of LED

LED Light Bulbs

Benefits of LED Lights

LED light bulbs can save you money not only because they are roughly 80 percent more energy efficient than other bulbs, they also produce far less heat than metal halides, CFLs, and incandescent light bulbs. Upgrading to LED lighting means you won’t spend your summer months cooling down rooms that your light bulbs are busy heating up. While originally a cooler blue tone than incandescent bulbs, LEDs now come in daylight and warm white color temperatures so you can more easily replace your existing bulbs without altering the color of your room.

LED replacement bulbs are durable and ecologically friendly. Did you know you can recycle LED bulbs and reduce your carbon footprint up to one third? LEDs outlast the competition, staying bright for up to 11 years of continuous operation. This means less time climbing ladders trying to replace those hard to reach bulbs in vaulted ceilings.

LEDs are one of today’s most promising technologies.

No mercury, making them a cleaner alternative to fluorescent and CFL lamps.

Life that is 20 times longer than some traditional lighting products.

The lowest energy consumption of any lighting product to date.

Light quality equal or superior to traditional lighting products

LEDs or Fluorescents – Which is More Efficient?

LED light bulbs for the win! When it comes to purchasing energy-efficient lighting, LEDs surpass CFLs by a wide margin. LEDs are instant-start with no warmup time needed. They work well in cold weather, and are substantially more durable since manufactured out of plastic instead of glass. From standard bulbs to fluorescent tubes, LEDs can replicate the same lighting conditions found in fluorescents while lasting longer and using less energy. As an added bonus, all LEDs are RoHS compliant and do not use mercury, a claim that can’t be made by fluorescent bulbs

LED Lighting Options

Standard Shape A19 – Designed to give the appearance and pattern of a standard incandescent bulb. Standard and A-shape LED bulbs fit the same sockets and fixtures as your current household lights.

3-Way LED – A three-way bulb is a light bulb that has three brightness settings instead of the standard on or off. If your lamp or fixture says it requires a three-way bulb, this is the category for you.

Vintage LED Bulbs- Vintage reproduction bulbs are now available with LED filament. They have a warm orange glow with lower light levels to mimic the style of a vintage bulb on a dimmer as it transitions from yellow to orange. These Edison style and Victorian style bulbs make great collector items. Order yours today to make your own steampunk lighting.

Wet Location LED Bulbs – A wet location UL rating means these LED light bulbs can be used in humid indoor areas or outdoors where water may drop or flow against the bulb or fixture.

Decorative LED Bulbs – Browse LED globe lights ranging from 3 in. to 1.5 in. diameters or find LED replacement bulbs for your chandelier light bulbs. The long life of LEDs mean less time on the ladder changing burnt out bulbs. Many LED chandelier lights are dimmer switch compatible and come in a range of color temperature so you can still enjoy the ambiance of traditional bulbs but the energy savings of LEDs.

LED Tubes – LED tubes are the emerging standard for commercial and household lighting. Ranging in size from T5 to T12 and a variety of color temperatures, these LED tubes are an easy way to upgrade to energy efficient lighting. Some of them work with or without an existing ballast, making the transition to LED lighting easier than ever. These LED tubes emit the same amount of light as fluorescent T8s, while using a fraction of the power and lasting up to three times longer. LED tubes are especially effective in cold areas like refrigeration lockers where fluorescent tubes are less efficient at producing light.

LED Tape Lights – For accents, alcove, and backlighting, LED tape light is a fantastic choice. More flexible than rope light and bright enough for accent illumination, a strip of LED tape light can bring any place to life. There are countless uses and applications for this easily installed new light source.

Reflectors – From the powerful flood and spot lights, to home bound recessed or track lights, reflectors find excellent use indoors or out. LED reflector lamps can provide the same brilliance for less energy and will create far less heat than an incandescent or halogen lamp. As a bonus, they have a higher CRI than fluorescent reflectors for better colors.

Best Light Bulbs

Shopping for light bulbs may seem like a simple task, but there are actually a number of factors to consider. There are several primary types of light bulbs: long-lasting, energy-efficient LEDs, budget-friendly but fleeting incandescents, and middle-of-the-road (in terms of both cost and energy efficiency) CFLs.

Regardless of which type of light bulb you’re shopping for, consider what color temperature you want in your home. Soft white, daylight, and bright white are the usual categories that bulbs fall into and will deliver different illumination levels and ambiance. In addition, check the wattage of the bulb to match it to your fixture and ensure that it will provide enough light for the setting or task you have in mind.

If you want to go for the latest technology, opt for LED, which stands for “light emitting diode.” It used to be that these bulbs were only for specialty lamps, but nowadays they can fit into the standard screw-in connector featured in most lamps and light sockets.

While the bulbs are longer-lasting and more energy efficient than your standard incandescent bulb, they focus their light in one direction as opposed to diffusing around a room. This makes them great for lighting up a specific space. They are ideal in reading lamps, under cabinet lighting, and as task lights. Plus, they don’t heat up as much as incandescent bulbs do during operation.

Frosted LED Light Bulbs are available in two different styles: soft light, which gives off a warmer and more cozy vibe that’s perfect for a relaxed mood (great for your living room and bedroom lamps), and daylight, which has the look of natural sunlight. This product is said to have a lifespan of 10+ years, and is estimated to save you about $60 in energy costs over those years compared to traditional incandescent lights. The majority of customers have been happy with the quality of the bulbs, especially with the reasonable price point, although some have reported issues with bulbs flickering over time.

How to Go Green: Lighting

How we light up the places we live and work makes a big impact on how we feel. It also makes a big impact on the environment. The kind of bulbs, the kind of fixtures, the kind of power, and the habits we keep can all add up to a very significant greening. Start with the fact that a conventional incandescent bulb turns only around five to ten percent of its consumed energy into light, the rest goes out as heat. From there, there’s no limit to how green your lighting can be.

CFL: The better bulb

Compact florescent bulbs (CFLs) are those swirley little guys that look like soft-serve ice cream cones. Actually, they come in a myriad of different shapes, sizes, and colors of light. Economically speaking, they’re a great deal, too. CFLs cost a bit more than an incandescent, but use about a quarter as much energy and last many times longer (usually around 10,000 hours). It is estimated that a CFL pays for its higher price after about 500 hours of use. After that, it’s money in your pocket. Also, because CFLs release less heat, not only are they safer, but your cooling load is less in the summer. CFLs aren’t hard to find anymore, and many cities will give them away for free.

Get the LEDs outLEDs are a definite TreeHugger favorite. LEDs, or light emitting diodes, are a technology that allows for extremely energy efficient and extremely long-lasting light bulbs. LEDs are just starting to hit the consumer market in a big (read affordable) way and still cost quite a bit more than even CFLs, but use even less energy and last even longer. An LED light bulb can reduce energy consumption by 80-90% and last around 100,000 hours. They even light up faster than regular bulbs (which could save your life it there are LEDs in the brake lights of your car)

Most LED lamps on the market have the bulbs built into them, so you buy the whole unit. For screw-in bulbs, check out Ledtronics, Mule, and Enlux. For desk lamps


Light isn’t all about the bulbs, though. Having eco-friendly lamps and light fixtures is key to greening your lighting. When scouting for new gear, keep your eyes out for lamps made with natural, recycled, or reused materials. Lights made from recycled materials include metal, glass, or plastic, and natural materials can include felt, cloth or wood. Interesting lamps that use reclaimed materials include these made from traffic signal lenses, and these made from wine bottles. Also, don’t be shy about borrowing ideas for reuse in your own projects (see DIY).

Fungi Related Health Issues And The Importance Of Mold Remediation

Mold Growth in the Winter

The lack of moisture in the cold air leads people to believe they don’t have to worry about mold growth during the winter. Unfortunately there are several factors that lead to increased concerns about mold during the winter months.

Turning Up the Heat

During the winter months our homes are sealed up tight to keep the warm air in. The warm air is unable to leave your home, the trapped moisture and condensation from the increased humidity creates a perfect atmosphere for mold growth. Differences in relative humidity throughout the house can also increase the chances of mold growth.

Lack of Ventilation

Indoor air is typically drier overall during the winter months but certain areas of the home may experience intensified levels of humidity due to a lack of ventilation. Kitchens and bathrooms are particularly susceptible to this issue. Something as little as steam from the shower, sink or stove can create a big problem. During cold weather, windows are closed tightly and condensation collects on indoor surfaces such as cold walls or windows and frames. This moisture creates an ideal conditions for mold growth in winter.

Using Humidifiers

Due to the dry air during the winter, there is a high use of humidifiers. Having moisture in the air can be helpful but if you aren’t careful, the over using of a humidifier can cause mold growth. To avoid any issues use them in moderation.

Water Damage

A leaking pipes or roof can create a constant source of moisture in your home. If you find a leak, get it repaired immediately. Mold may compound the problem if the moisture problem is not addressed immediately.

Steps to Take if You Have Mold

If you have mold, chances are that you want it removed right away. While mold can be a nuisance, it can also be treated and stopped from growing. In case you don’t know what to do if you discover it in your hom

Identify the water source. If you have mold, you either have or had a water problem, since it’s a necessary ingredient for mold growth. Although it can be treated immediately, if the water source is not addressed, the mold will just grow back.

Call a mold remediation company. Unless the mold is shallow and covers a small surface area, it’s best to call your local mold remediation company. Not only are they able to treat the growth, but they also have the tools and experience to contain the area so others are not contaminated. If it’s only a small amount of growth, consider wiping the surface with an antimicrobial spray applied to a cloth.

Take steps to prevent future growth. Once you’ve taken steps to address current mold growth, it’s important to take steps to prevent it from occurring again in the future. The main concern is mitigating the amount of moisture in your home, which you can learn more about in our post about mold prevention.

Do I Have Mold in My Home?

Homeowners generally don’t want mold in their home, which is why they often try to have mold growth treated. But many homeowners are not sure if they have mold at all. In some cases it can be tricky, but there a few indicators that should help you determine if you have mold.

You can see it. The most obvious sign you have mold is you can physically see it. If you do, you should contact your local mold remediation company and ask for their services.

There is a strong, musty odor. Sometimes you cannot see mold, but there’s a strong, musty smell. While it’s not a guarantee you have mold growth, it is a strong indicator. You should call an inspector to test your home and make that determination.

You recently had water damage. Moisture is one of the key ingredients necessary for mold spores to begin growing. If you recently had water damage, it’s possible for mold to grow, especially if the affected areas were not properly treated. If you suspect you might have mold and recently had water damage, contact a mold inspector.

What Every Homeowner Should Know About Mold Growth

What Causes Mold Growth in Homes?

The cause for mold growing in the home may not be immediately apparent, but knowing what issues are commonly associated with spreading and developing spores can be useful. Several factors can contribute:

Access to organic materials, such as dirt, carpet and wood and other building materials

A moisture problem in bathrooms, basements or other areas prone to high levels of humidity

Water damage that is left untreated

Will Mold Go Away on Its Own?

Mold generally does not disappear on its own, and the root of the problem, which may be a water leak or an area with high humidity, often needs to be addressed to slow or stop the growth. Additionally, other factors such as airflow in the home could affect the spores’ ability to spread. To get rid of harmful problems such as black mold in your home, you may want to consider employing remediation specialists to assist you in the mold cleanup process.

How Can You Prevent Mold Growth in Your Home?

Preventing it from growing is often much less time-consuming and less costly than the process of mold remediation and restoration. Reducing the amount of humidity in your home by using dehumidifiers or increasing the airflow can help to prevent the spread of these funguses. Additionally, it can be helpful to frequently inspect the areas in your home that may be prone to growth, such as bathrooms, kitchens, under sinks and basements.

Keeping Mold Under Control During the Remediation Process

Removing mold from your home is a necessary task, one that must be taken care of quickly and efficiently. When a professionally-trained mold remediation team comes in to handle the removal of said mold, a step-by-step process must be adhered to in order to prevent mold contamination in other areas that are otherwise unaffected. Here is a quick look at how technicians handle the process, showing three important steps they take to properly contain and extract mold from a home.

1. Turn off the water supply and isolate the area. First and foremost, it’s important to turn off the main water system in the home, as any running water or leaks can simply create more moisture and lead to further mold growth. Meanwhile, the experienced crew members will set out to close all doors and windows between the affected areas to prevent spores from becoming airborne during the removal process.

2. Remove any damaged furniture, floorboards or other building materials and place them in heavy-duty plastic bags. The mold contamination damaged pieces of debris should be carefully handled and placed in durable bags that can be sealed off, not allowing any contaminated items to remain open to the air. Emptying a large majority of the space clears the way for easier cleanup and more effective mold containment.

3. Commence with cleanup procedures, using proper chemicals and tools to destroy mold growth while also using drying equipment to air out the home and complete the process. Once the team removes all traces of mold and decontaminates the affected areas, they’ll use high-pressure vacuums, fans or other drying equipment to eliminate moisture caused by possible leaks or high-humidity. Once the area has been deemed dry and clear, they’ll finish by replacing materials and running proper tests to ensure the area is secure.

Is there money in MOLD?

“Black Mold: Creeping Destruction” about the alleged devastation of mold in residential areas, plummeting home values and creating health concerns for homeowners. Time magazine’s Web site recently profiled a lawyer who claims to have filed more than 300 moisture- and mold-related cases during the past six years. Even a woman better known for successfully taking on large utility providers for polluting water, is coming out in force against mold

She has spent upwards of $500,000 to rebuild her dream home after mold allegedly gave her family respiratory problems, and she now is suing both the house’s builder and former owner.

The newest issue to top the indoor environmental awareness charts is mold contamination — both in residential and commercial buildings — and so far, sensationalistic media coverage has left many building service contractors and their customers wondering what to make of the topic.

The general public isn’t sure whether to panic or pull out the bleach. Many contractors, on the other hand, are trying to determine if this is a field in which they could prosper — or if it’s too rife with liabilities.

While most indoor environmental quality (IEQ) experts disagree on the extent and nature of today’s mold problems, they agree that mold presents a unique health risk and a need for educated contractors to identify and mitigate problems. As with other relatively new specialties, such as crime scene clean-up or disaster restoration, mold remediation can be profitable if done properly. But not every BSC may be cut out for the job.

Common Causes of Attic Mold

Bathroom mold, kitchen mold, basement mold, these areas tend to get all the hype, but there is another area that property owners need to be aware of, too, the attic. Mold found in attic areas can be challenging at times when trying to pinpoint the exact cause and source of mold growth. However, there are some common conditions that we routinely find during our mold investigations that are leading contributors to mold growth in attics.

Roof Leaks

Yes, you guessed it, at the top of our list is roof leaks. Several issues can occur around the flashing or the area where the roof plane meets a vertical surface like a vent or a chimney. Missing, deteriorated, or improperly install flashing among other penetration points and inadequate roof repairs are the most common causes of roof leaks. Water seepage also occurs when the roof is beyond the end of its life span. An annual inspection of your roof by a roofing specialist and routine maintenance can prevent leaks in a roof system, effectively reducing the likelihood of mold growth in your attic.

Inadequate Roof Ventilation

Without adequate ventilation, moisture-laden air can remain in attic areas. Often, this will cause elevated moisture conditions around the roof framing and roof sheathing. During cold winter months, for example, condensation can occur on the cold roof sheathing creating this damp environment. You may think otherwise, but it is important to keep your attic cool during colder months.

Another common cause of inadequate ventilation is when your soffit vents are blocked by debris. This could be debris from trees, roofing materials, birds’ nest, or insulation – when it is blown into the attic. If proper care is not taken during this time, the insulation can end up blocking the soffit vents. Soffit vents are critical in a passive ventilation system to circulate air from the lower portion of the attic (intake vents) to the upper roof vents (exhaust vents).

Bath or Kitchen Exhaust Fans Vented into the Attic

Exhaust fans should be vented directly to the exterior of the home, and surprisingly we often find this is not the case. When an exhaust fan is missing its exhaust duct, or if the duct has become separated, the exhaust is then vented directly into the attic space, similar to the situation above meaning the warm damp air is trapped creating the ideal atmosphere for microbial growth. In this case, it’s important to correct the issue an re-route the vents to the outside.

Quickbooks Bookkeeping Service

Things Bookkeepers Do For Small Businesses

Day to Day Management of Accounts

A bookkeeper can stay on top of your business’ accounts daily for all transactions. By keeping track of every sale or purchase and using software to do it all, it’s much easier for them to keep an eye on your cash flow.Plus, it saves plenty of data entry time.

Maintain Up-to-Date and Accurate Records

A bookkeeper will make sure that all of your business records are up-to-date. Plus, it’ll be their job to flag up any inconsistencies between the books and your business accounts, making sure you resolve problems quickly.

Keep Businesses Aligned With Laws

Tax can be a sensitive area. One mistake and a dreaded letter from HMRC can soon be on your way. That’s where bookkeepers come in, as they can help make sure your business stays aligned with the relevant laws. Remember, they’re here to help and not cause more significant problems.

Keep You Prepared For Tax

Like the laws and regulations, tax deadlines are quite strict as well. Doing the books is usually never the priority for many small businesses, so deadlines can slip under the radar. To keep the taxman happy and stop you from paying any additional fines, a bookkeeper will make sure your records are accurate, so you’re always prepared for tax.

Manage Bank Feeds

At a basic level, bookkeepers manage transactions brought in through software, like an app. Bank feeds, that link the software with your business bank account, allow you to see each transaction in real-time.

Handle Accounts Payable

It’s usually bookkeepers who make payments on behalf of your small business. This can include anything from payment of supplier invoices, petty cash and expenses.

Send Out Invoices and Manage Accounts Receivable

Another big responsibility of bookkeepers is that they prepare invoices and send them to your clients so you can receive payment on time. Managing the accounts receivable ledger is also likely to be done by a bookkeeper – as well as chasing up late payments so your records are always accurate.

Prepare Financial Statements

Bookkeepers will also be responsible for preparing some significant financial statements for small businesses. These can include a profit and loss statement, balance sheet and cash flow statements. These financial reports show a businesses bottom line and operating expenses, the balance of assets and liabilities as well as the cash flowing in and out of the business.

Process Payroll

The services bookkeepers offer can vary. Some can fulfil payroll and other HR functions for small businesses. This can include assisting businesses with the processing of paychecks and tax payments to employees.

Deal With Foreign Currency Transactions

Bookkeepers also make sure to maintain accurate foreign currency accounts, utilising current exchange rates. This can be made much easier with compatible digital bookkeeping apps that can instantly analyse exchange rates without wasting much time.

Perform Stocktake

For small businesses, bookkeepers also produce inventory reports by counting stock items. If there are any discrepancies, they report back to the business to make sure you can address problems quickly. It’s most commonly carried out at the end of a business’ financial year end with the figures featuring in reports such as profit and loss statements.

Keep an Eye on Cash Flow

One of the most essential tasks a bookkeeper will do for a small business is making sure they don’t run out of day-to-day money. They can do this by keeping an eye on the balance of revenues to expenses, along with offering more advice if the business needs more available cash to operate.

Preparing the Books For an Accountant

It’s a bookkeeper’s job to make sure that the accounts are valid and up-to-date when the accountant needs them. This lets an accountant use their knowledge to make business recommendations and complete any tax returns.

How do the responsibilities of a bookkeeper differ from those of an accountant?

I see a bookkeeper’s responsibilities as getting the business transactions into the company’s general ledger. This involves a tremendous amount of accuracy and persistence in first getting the information and then getting it entered. At smaller companies the bookkeeper is likely to process the payables (receiving suppliers’ invoices, verifying them, and remitting the amounts), receivables (billing customers, processing receipts, sending statements), payroll, and other tasks. In larger companies, the bookkeeper’s responsibilities are likely to be assigned to an accounts payable clerk, an accounts receivable clerk, and a payroll clerk. Generally, the bookkeeper (or accounting clerks) will not have a four-year accounting degree and will be paid considerably less than an accountant.

Accountants will review the information that the bookkeeper had entered into the general ledger, will prepare adjusting entries, will prepare the financial statements, and will analyze them. The accountant will likely supervise the bookkeeper (or accounting clerks), will be involved in the accounting system, and will review the financial statements with the management and owners of the company. The accountant will also be involved in budgeting of operations and capital improvements, cost accounting, reports to government agencies, and various analyses required by management. Generally, the accountant will have a four-year or a five-year college degree with a major in accounting.

Of course my remarks are a broad generalization. Responsibilities will vary by company and by individual.

Basic Types of Bookkeeping You Should Know

There’s a little bit of learning involved that will make getting to grips with bookkeeping much easier in the long run. To help, we’ve listed the most basic types of bookkeeping you should know below.

  • Cash: The account where all business transactions pass. This is an important account that often bookkeepers use two journals, cash receipts and cash disbursements, to track the activity.
  • Accounts Receivable: If your business sells products or services and you don’t collect money immediately, then you have receivables. This account tracks the money due from customers. This needs to be kept up-to-date so you can send accurately and timely invoices.
  • Inventory: The account where you account for all of the products you have in stock. The numbers you have in your books should be tested by doing physical counts of inventory on hand.
  • Accounts Payable: The account that allows you to see what money is leaving or has left the business – and when. This account gives you a clear view of everything you need to pay and makes sure that you don’t pay anyone twice.
  • Loans Payable: The account which tracks and breaks down everything that you still owe and when payments are due for anything that you’ve borrowed.
  • Sales: The account where you track all of your incoming revenue from sales transactions. This is another important account, as recording sales accurately and in a timely manner helps to know where your business stands.
  • Purchases: The account where you track any materials or goods that you have bought for your business. This is a key component of calculating Costs of Goods Sold which you subtract from Sales to find your business’ gross profit.
  • Payroll Expenses: The account where you track salaries and wages paid to your employees. This is often the biggest cost of all for many businesses. Keeping this accurate is essential for meeting tax and other reporting requirements.
  • Retained Earnings: This account tracks any of your company’s profits that are reinvested in the business and aren’t paid out to the owners. The earnings here are cumulative, so they appear as a running total of money that’s been retained since the company started. It’s a good way of tracking how well your business has done over time.

Commercial Cleaning Companies

Commercial Cleaning

Healthcare Cleaning Services

Cleaning of doctors’ surgeries, medical centres, and healthcare practitioners require stringent hygiene procedures, as well as the ability to maintain strong customer communications. has learned the particularities of providing effective cleaning for the healthcare sector through years of experience. management systems are designed to ensure that our customer relationships are efficient, satisfying and enduring.

Office Cleaning Services

Having a clean and hygienic office is the simplest way to improve your workplace environment. It’s not an easy task: Staff eat at desks, they leave food in the fridge and they put their grubby hands everywhere, contaminating touch points. It is estimated that 80% of infections are transmitted by touch. ‘Activity Based Working’ and ‘Hot Desking’ adds to the hygiene dilemma, as do sharing computer mice and telephones. Employers have a statutory requirement to provide clean and hygienic workplaces. A dirty workplace is often cited as a reason why staff leave

Industrial Cleaning Services

developed industry leading systems, procedures and management to ensure that service meets and exceeds customers’ compliances for Health and Safety, Environment, Training and Security. provides a consistent standard of service from the same cleaning team on-site, with no personnel changes happening all the time.

School Cleaning Services

“Consistency” is the word that sums up what we believe schools would like most from their cleaning provider. We are talking about a consistent level of cleaning, a consistent level of account management and term cleans performed consistently to the required standard on time.

Retail Cleaning Services

Presentation is everything in a retail or high foot traffic environment. Gleaming windows, shining floors and beautifully presented product are all part of attracting people into your space. Customers walk in with dirt and debris off the street…they also bring coughs, colds and the flu; potentially contaminating your environment. Cross contamination is now recognised as a leading cause of workplace sickness, and it is largely unseen. Germs pass from customer to staff, staff to staff, and next thing you have absenteeism.

Commercial Cleaning Services Employee Reviews

Cleaned and moved appliances in and out of apartments as they were being renovated. Good relationship with other coworkers, not an incredible relationship with management. Good job for high school kids trying to earn quick money over summer break.

Not enough hours, sometimes pretty risky going out at night to different areas by yourself to clean . Going to work consisted of dusting offices, changing garbages , cleaning bathrooms, vacuum floors, sweep, mop, stock bathrooms. Clean windows if needed. I worked alone so I could work at my own pace . Hardest part of my job was working alone and not having positive support around .

I cleaned a Child care center and I clean the bathrooms and a mop the floors are white at the dust down and there was a lot of things that I done fourths for 3 hours and they paid me $30 of day

I didn’t enjoy working for this company. My co- workers and even supervisors were very unreliable. I have had many incidents that has caused me to lose out on work and money due to supervisors not showing up to open the building. Not a great place to work.

People were great, they were helpful and reliable. I felt that I was able to grow and learn new skills and that my opinions were taken into consideration.

Company for Reliable Cleaning Services

Cleanliness is one of the biggest indicators of how much one cares about the environment they are providing, whether it be for customers, clients, patients, or even family & friends. The thing about cleaning is that it is an intimidating task for many. Especially when specific methods are required in order to ensure a place is properly cleaned, the help of a professional cleaning service is more than necessary.

After Builders Cleaning

can attend to your recently built or renovated premise in order to bring your location to a client-ready standard. Often times, once construction of a building or a renovation has been completed, there is a mess of dust, debris, marks, smudges, etc. can take care of all of those problems and leave your premise in a perfect state – fresh & ready to receive your customers so you can get back to business

Commercial Carpet Cleaning & Floor Cleaning

With steam cleaning, stain removal, and rug cleaning methods, can help restore your dirty carpets back to their former glory. After many years of cleaning for all types of properties, also learned how to clean & maintain all types of flooring. Whether you have marble, stone, wood, or laminate floors, know what products to use in order to leave a quality finish.

Commercial Window Cleaning

Cleaning windows can be a difficult, and even dangerous, task to deal with. window cleaning technicians are pros at window cleaning and can take care of your window cleaning needs.

End of Tenancy Cleaning

Whether you are a tenant who needs a clean up after moving our or you are a landlord in need of a professional cleaning service before you move a new tenant in your home or unit

List of the supplies you’ll need to get started

One of the nice things about starting a cleaning business is that you don’t need to purchase a lot of supplies to get started. In most cases everything you need can fit in just about any vehicle. This is because the vast majority of jobs you will land in the beginning stages of your business will be of the smaller variety, allowing for a minimal amount of supplies that will be needed.

When you first start out, you may have only one set of supplies that you cart around from job to job. As you grow, and bring in more money, you can purchase more supplies. For instance I only had one set of supplies until I landed four or five accounts, and I moved them from job to job.

That works fine on the house cleaning side of the business, as you’ll generally never keep your supplies at someone’s home. In fact some homeowners want you to use their cleaning supplies, as they prefer to use their favorite solutions.

But once you start collecting commercial cleaning accounts, if you go that route, you’ll soon get tired of that setup. It will work at accounts you only clean once a week, or every two weeks for that matter. However once you start going several nights per week to the same account you might as well keep everything on location.

Getting back to what you need as far as supplies go, the list I’ll provide below will cover the majority of accounts you will run into when you first get started. Just keep in mind that you may need to adjust your supply list depending on what type of accounts you land early on

The Right Checklist of Cleaning Supplies for Office and Commercial Places

Getting our house cleaned and making it a safe place to survive should be one of our prime concerns. But what about the commercial areas? For 8 to 9 hours we are working in an office, which is not being carefully maintained. When the office remains dirty, germs and viruses make it their breeding ground. The office must have all its cleaning supplies stored at its inventory so that your office can be cleaned at a daily basis. Whether you run an office or a medical store or in a restaurant, cleanliness should always be your priority. A neat and clean office always gives a good impression to your clients. Moreover, the employees must be given a well sanitized area to work for longer hours at a stretch.

Without these equipments, it is not possible to get a hygienic office. It is very important to monitor whether your office is going through a regular clean up routine or not. Maintaining a basic hygiene in the office is always a necessary, not a luxury.

The reception area:

The reception area casts the first impression upon your visitors. This is the area where everyone lands up when they come to your office. Therefore, the area needs special attention and regular cleaning.

This area needs a regular sweeping so that dirt doesn’t get collected.

Never clutter the reception area by stacking it with magazines.

Dust the tables frequently during the working hours.

Use garbage bin and keep it clear.

Get the windows cleaned.

Check whether the floors are properly cleaned and mopped everyday.

The office kitchen:

Office kitchen is used by all the employees of your organization. Therefore, it is very important to keep this place hygienic. In order to maintain the hygiene of your office kitchen, you should follow these tips:

Get the trash bins cleaned every day

Clean the refrigerator once in a week

The coffee machine must be cleaned regularly.

Mop the counter tops after every usage

Keep the floors always dry and clean.

Keep the bathroom clean:

Germs and viruses thrive in the bathroom. The bathrooms need to be cleaned twice daily. Every time you use the bathroom, flush and wash your hands with a hand wash. Make the employees maintain these things for their own good.

Clogging of water at a certain area in the bathroom is very dangerous, get it cleaned.

Clean the tiles and floors with disinfectants

Floors must never be slippery

There must be proper hygiene maintained in the bathroom.

Use of air fresheners is mandatory for bathrooms.

Reasons You Should Schedule Yearly Veterinarian Checkups

Things Pet Owners Do That Drive Veterinarians Crazy!

It’s a tough subject to tackle. After all, veterinarians do plenty of annoying things, too. But this particular post is all about you — well, not you, but the annoying yous among you. Not that most of you deserve this, but some of you just might! So without any further hedging, let me launch into the most annoying things pet owners do when they are at the vet:

Answering Your Cell Phone In The Middle Of A Visit

Need I say more? Is there anything more annoying and disrespectful than answering a phone call while your vet is delivering her state-of-your-pet’s-health address? OK, it might be worse if you dug out your phone to initiate a call midexam, but only by a smidge. They’re both just plain rude.

Bringing Young Children Along For Fun

I dearly love children (mine mostly, but yours can also be cool), but very young or badly behaved children are an unnecessary liability in a veterinary environment. It’s hard enough to keep pets safe — much less kids. So unless your children are old enough and/or chill enough to hang out in a vet setting, they should probably stay home.

One exception: If your pet has an emergency and you have no one to care for your kids, you are most definitely excused. A vet will understand. If you have a good relationship with your vet, call ahead and they may even assign an employee to keep tabs on your kids so you can concentrate on what’s wrong with your pet. It takes a village.

Let Your Dogs Run Amok

This is not the dog park. And, for the record, retractable leads should remain in the shortest, locked position for the duration of your visit. After watching an innocent human get taken down in the lobby by an overlong retractable line, I decided there should be a law against these in vet hospitals.

Carry Their Cat Without A Carrier

I’ve never been able to fathom why some owners insist upon bringing their cats to the vet hospital without carriers. Some will use harnesses, which won’t help them when faced with a truly motivated dog. And, honestly, I’d never blame a dog for attacking a cat in a veterinary hospital environment. After all, these cats are probably giving off cornered prey vibes that some dogs can’t ignore.

Cats are more comfortable in uncertain environments when they’re enclosed.

Deny, Deny, Deny

It drives vets crazy. Clients effectively employ vets to be their experts, then they put up roadblock after roadblock: No, my pet is not fat. No, my pet’s teeth are not rotting. No, he’s too old for surgery. No, her claws are not too long. It can be exasperating for a vet to deal with!

I can understand why you might (and should!) question your veterinarian about health care issues that are important to you, but why come to the vet if you’re unwilling to have an open dialogue about what your pet needs and doesn’t need?

Refuse To Pay

It happens more often than you’d think. Pet owners agree to hospitalization and procedures — and later refuse to pay. Sometimes they say that they forgot their checkbooks. Other times they claim to have misunderstood the payment policy, even though there’s a sign in almost every veterinary hospital in the United States that explains payment is expected when services are rendered. One client even cancelled her Amex payment after her vet saved her anemic cat’s life with a blood transfusion. Not cool.

Don’t Follow Through

There’s no shame in admitting that you can’t medicate your difficult cat or trim your unruly dog’s toenails. Veterinarians are pet owners, too. They absolutely understand why you might not be able to manage these not-so-simple tasks.

But you’ve got to let your vet know if you can’t, don’t, or won’t do what they say (and explain why). After all, vets have plenty of alternatives to offer. And there are few things more frustrating to a veterinarian than failing to treat a patient who could have been helped if only the vet were able to employ some ingenuity.

Want to give your veterinarian the best holiday gift ever? Resolve to be a more honest, open, conscientious, cat box-carrying, child care-finding, cell phone-shirking client.

Crappy people skills.

This is more about what vets don’t say- as in nothing. How about the veterinarian and their staff making good eye contact when any client comes to the office and making pet owners feel welcome. I have had many clients say they have felt un-important and not acknowledged at a veterinary clinic. Imagine the veterinarian introducing him or herself, saying your name, and your pet’s name. Unfortunately people skills are not one of those traits selected for at veterinary school- yes as a veterinarian you can be great with animals, have superior medical or surgical skills, but you still need to be able to talk to pet owners.

I Know So Many Medical Words. The newly graduated I know so much that I must speak in ‘medical term’ lingo is a veterinarian you may know. These veterinarians feel the need to impress you with all the big words that they know. Unfortunately this is very difficult to understand and a major source of miscommunication. You may be asking yourself after the veterinary visit: “What did the vet say?” To have pet owners comply with their suggestions, veterinarians need to be able to properly explain what is wrong with clients pets in ‘regular’ terms. For instance I suggest that vets do not use the term phytobezoar, when they could say the word hairball.

Too many recommendations.

So what does your pet really need? 13 different blood tests, heartworm screen, fecal flotation, urinalysis, X-rays, EKG, all justified as ‘wellness’ screening. If a pet is sick, most clients want vets to do the most important tests first in order to figure out the cause. Clients want veterinarians to start with some common sense and give a list of the most likely diagnoses. Ask your veterinarian exactly what they do for so called ‘wellness screening’ for their own pets. In my experience most veterinarians only do diagnostic tests on their own animals when they are sick. Should this really be different with their clients?

Home diets, Raw Food and those overpriced ‘All Natural’ Diets are a waste of time and can Harm your pet. Perhaps, but likely not. Millions of dogs and cats around the world are eating raw food and thriving…and ‘gasp’ the food is not balanced. Veterinarians and veterinary food companies still claim that dry, carbohydrate loaded kibble is ‘fine’, yet a growing body of evidence is showing how this is harming our pets. Diabetes is directly linked to these dry kibble diets, yet most veterinarians are still advising that you feed primarily these to your pets.

Realistic estimates. Veterinary care is expensive, some clinics far more than others. Staff salaries have gone up, equipment such as digital X-ray is pricy, and superior care costs. Fair enough. But pet owners routinely find themselves shocked at the reception desk when they go to pick up Fluffy from a dental, expecting a bill for $250.00 and getting one for $799. Prior to doing anything extra ensure that the veterinarian talks to you first, so you can at least give verbal consent. As well, it would sure help if veterinarians understand that many clients really don’t have the extra funds, so at times please give the less expensive option. For example most cat abscess don’t require surgery, yet many clients report that when they bring their cat to a clinic for an abscess, they are only given surgery as an option.

The Pros And Cons Of Transmission Repair Replacements

What are the signs of a bad automatic transmission?

What is a Transmission?

Another name for a car’s transmission, is a car’s gearbox. A transmission is the component that helps to turn the engine’s power into something the car is able to use on a regular basis. Without a transmission, you would basically sit in your car with the engine running and you headed nowhere.

The Different Kinds of Transmissions

Manual Transmission

A manual transmission, also has the name of manual gearbox. Others may refer to it as a standard transmission, gearbox or a stick shift. This kind of transmission is utilized in motor vehicle applications. A manual transmission also uses a driver-operated clutch, generally engaged by a hand lever or a foot pedal.

Automatic Manual Transmission

An automatic manual transmission has an automatic clutch. The driver can change gears without operating a clutch pedal. Instead of a clutch pedal, actuators, sensors and processors do the job.

Dual-Clutch Transmission

The dual-clutch transmission is a variation on an automated manual transmission. Not only does it look after the operation of the clutch but the gear changes too. Each clutch takes care of either even or odd-numbered sets. The entire objective is to pre-select the next gear, own up as the driver activates the previous gear. This means that when a driver initiates the next change, that changes happens instantly without any interruption in progress or even power.

Signs of a Bad Automatic Transmission

A bad automatic transmission normally presents a series of signs and symptoms that can be easily identified with careful attention. What follows is a brief description of some of the most common signs of a bad automatic transmission.

Transmission Slippage

An automatic transmission that slips in and out of gear while driving is a classic sign of a bad transmission. An automatic transmission has a series of gears(normally between 4 and 5) designed for various engine speeds and loads. An automatic transmission that slips between gears affects vehicle performance and is a sign of impending transmission failure.

Transmission Spinning

A bad or faulty automatic transmission will often spin without providing any forward vehicle movement. This normally happens when an automatic transmission clutch fails to properly engage the transmission gears with the engine crankshaft, resulting in a spinning or freewheeling condition.

Trransmission Lag

Transmission lag is defined as a delay in transmission action or engagement. When a vehicle is accelerated, a transmission that lags will fail to engage for a few seconds before “kicking” into gear. Transmission lag normally happens during acceleration from a complete stop.

Burned Transmission Fluid

Normal transmission fluid is pinkish in color and almost transparent. A bad automatic transmission will often burn and/or char automatic transmission fluid and turn the fluid almost black; many times there will actually be a burned, smoky smell to the fluid as well.

Severe Transmission Fluid Leaks

An automatic transmission that leaks a large amount of transmission fluid, whether during normal vehicle operation or when a vehicle is parked, is a sign of a bad automatic transmission.

Transmission Noisy in Neutral

It seems intuitive that if you hear weird noises when the car should be shifting, that the transmission is acting up. But would you suspect it if things were going “bump” in neutral? Yes, it could be the transmission.

Such sounds could have a simple and inexpensive solution — as with many of the problems on our list, adding or replacing the transmission fluid sometimes does the trick. Bear in mind that as is the case with engine oil, different vehicles do best with the specific formulation called for in the owner’s manual.

Alternatively, lots of noises from the transmission while it’s in neutral could signal something more serious, like mechanical wear that will need the replacement of parts. In this case, common culprits are a worn reverse idler gear or worn bearings, possibly coupled with worn gear teeth

Refuses to Go Into Gear

Believe it or not, there are still quite a few people out there who practice the fading art of shifting manually, with a foot pedal and a “stick” gearshift, and who do so willingly.

Despite their somewhat simpler operation, manual transmissions nonetheless have their share of things that can go wrong. One potential problem is that the transmission refuses to budge when you depress the clutch pedal and attempt to move the stick shifter.

It may happen when trying to get into first gear from a stop, or at any point up and down the assorted gears. Common causes include low transmission fluid, wrong viscosity (thickness) of fluid, or required adjusting of the shift cables or clutch linkage.

Dipstick Inspection

Checking your car’s transmission fluid with the dipstick is one of the easiest and most inexpensive ways you can help prolong the life of your transmission. If you have rear-wheel drive, it is located toward the rear of an in-line engine. If your vehicle has front wheel drive, the transmission fluid dipstick will be sticking out of the transaxle. Please refer to your owner’s manual guide for further help. With your car in neutral or park, let your engine run until it is warm before pulling the dipstick out (Do not turn your engine off). To check the fluid color, rub in between your index finger and thumb. The fluid should be pinkish and almost clear. If the fluid is a brownish color and has a burnt toast smell it can no longer dissipate the heat the transmission generates and needs to be changed.To check fluid level insert dipstick, wipe it clean, and examine level marks and then insert it again. The fluid should be between two marks labeled either “full” and “add” or “hot” and “cold”. If the level is not full, you will need to top off your transmission fluid. Be careful not to add too much. If the level is too high it will cause the fluid to churn and aerate, creating air bubbles, that can trap heat and make the fluid run hotter.Not sure what type of transmission fluid to choose? Come to Pep Boys and choose from a variety of products or make an appointment.

Odd Sounds

Manual and automatic transmissions respond differently when they are malfunctioning. It is important to recognize any odd sounds your transmission might be making to avoid further complications. If you have a manual transmission, a common warning sign is a very abrupt grinding noise or feeling when you shift into a new gear. Experiencing a grinding noise after fully engaging a clutch and shift may mean you have worn clutch or might have to get it adjusted. Also, your transmissions gear synchronizers may be worn out or damaged.

Effective Scorpion Control Measures

Scorpion sting


Your history and symptoms are usually all your doctor needs to make a diagnosis. If you have severe symptoms, you may have blood or imaging tests to check for the effects of the venom on your liver, heart, lungs and other organs.


Most scorpion stings don’t need medical treatment. But if symptoms are severe, you may need to receive care in a hospital. You may be given drugs through a vein (intravenously) to treat pain.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If a scorpion stings you or your child, follow the suggestions below. Healthy adults may not need further treatment, and these tips can help keep children safe until they see a doctor:

Clean the wound with mild soap and water.

Apply a cool compress to the affected area. This may help reduce pain.

Don’t consume food or liquids if you’re having difficulty swallowing.

Take an over-the-counter pain reliever as needed. You might try ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Children’s Motrin, others) to help ease discomfort.


Other Common Name: Striped Scorpion

Family: Buthidae (a scorpion family), in the order Scorpiones, in the class Arachnida

Description: Striped bark scorpions are pale yellowish brown, usually with two lengthwise dark stripes on the abdomen. This is the only species of scorpion in Missouri. It occurs in glades and other dry, warm, rocky areas, and sometimes in buildings and shelters and under piles of wood, brush, or garbage.

Most people are familiar with the overall scorpion shape: a flattened, elongated oval body; the pair of front appendages with pincers; four pairs of walking legs; and a long, curling tail that ends in a bulbous segment tipped with stinger.

This species is distinguished, among other things, by a dark triangle is on top of the head. Young striped bark scorpions are pale yellowish brown, usually with two broad lengthwise dark stripes on the abdomen (the back); older scorpions are uniform dark brown with the stripes faint or lacking.


scorpions prefer glades with lots of loose rock (such as limestone or dolomite glades) so that they can hide from the sun during the day. Scorpions seek out these places, especially if there are few humans around, because here they find ideal shelter and plentiful food. Scorpions are sometimes found in buildings and shelters, as well as under piles of wood, brush, or garbage

This species is called the “striped bark scorpion” because it is a species of “bark scorpion” (the common name applied to any scorpions in genus Centruroides) that has stripes. It does not usually live on trees or bark.

Scorpions apparently arrived in this part of the country about 8,000 years ago when the climate was warmer, drier, and more like the desert southwest is today. When the climate here changed again, about 4,000 years ago, and become cooler and wetter, these scorpions were able to remain in the relatively desertlike glade environments where they can be found today


Generally nocturnal predators, striped bark scorpions prefer soft-bodied prey such as spiders, cockroaches, ants, crickets, beetles, and butterflies. They grab the prey with their pincers and sometimes use their stinger to subdue it. A hungry scorpion may even tackle small mice and lizards. Scorpions are also cannibalistic: Larger scorpions will prey on smaller, weaker scorpions.

What are scorpions?

Scorpions are arachnids which means all adults have eight legs. This species of scorpion has a waxy cuticle that covers its body to help them maintain moisture. Under ultraviolet light, the cuticle glows.

Bark scorpions have yellow or tan bodies with two wide, black stripes on the topside of their abdomens. These scorpions grow to between 2 and 3 inches long, with most reaching about 2-3/8 inches. They have segmented tails that curve up over their backs; the last segment has a venom-filled stinger attached to it. Their tails, as well as their pair of claw-like appendages, are narrower than other species of scorpions. They use their claws to capture and hold onto their prey.

Are striped bark scorpions dangerous?

The striped bark scorpion is dangerous because like bees, wasps, and other stinging pests they deliver painful, venom-filled stings as a means of defense. After being stung there may be swelling and itching around the bite sight that persists for several days. A reaction to their venom varies by individual, those sensitive to scorpion venom may experience a more severe allergic reaction.

Why do I have a striped bark scorpion problem?

Properties that have a lot of insects, spiders, and small mammals like rodents living on them have the potential to become home to striped bark scorpions. Striped bark scorpions have high moisture needs and are also attracted to properties with easy access to water and dark, damp areas to hide in during the day. Striped bark scorpions are good climbers and are often found on trees or climbing up of the walls of a home, allowing them easy access inside through any small opening they come across.

Where will I find striped bark scorpions?

Striped bark scorpions do not burrow, but do hide under rocks, mulch, woodpiles, fallen trees, and behind tree bark. They prefer to live outside, but if the weather becomes too hot and dry, they move indoors, seeking a more humid environment. Crawl spaces, bathrooms (sinks and tubs), laundry rooms, and basements all make great hideouts for striped bark scorpions.

Scorpions – the one thing holding us back from booking

We have no issues with spiders, snakes or even scorpions in the day while we are out, but it’s sleeping at night in a hotel. We’ve heard and read a few horror stories of tourists being stung in the night by scorpions while they are asleep. These occurred in hotels you wouldn’t think would have scorpions. Some of them were even listed on tripadvisor under hotel reviews.

I would hate to take a vacation where every night i have to tear my room apart and use a black light to search for scorpions.

1. Is there any merit to this or am I being overly paranoid?

2. What are the odds of being stung by a scorpion in your hotel room?

3. Do the odds increase the further south you go? (i.e tombstone)

4. Are there any ways to avoid this from happening?

1. Yes you are being overly paranoid. I have lived here over 50 years and have never had an encounter with a scorpion

2. odds, quite low

3. No

4. If you are still scared, buy a portable black light, they glow when the light is shined on them, or get low to the floor and scan the room, easier to see from their angle.


Q: Help! My house is overrun with scorpions, and I hate them.

A: How ungracious of you. First of all, the scorpions were here first, and secondly, they absolutely adore you. And what do they get from you? The back of your Reebok. And, in a way, it’s your fault there are so many of them in the first place. Well, not your fault personally, but our fault collectively.

This is a nasty little critter, skinny and yellowish in color, and it’s sting can cause intense pain, numbness and, at least in theory, death. Bloom said there are no accounts of anyone dying of a scorpion sting in the 40 years that records have been kept.

Bloom has an interesting job. With the help of three goats, she produces scorpion antivenin for distribution to area hospitals, doctors and veterinarians. During the summer, she gets a dozen or so requests for antivenin a week.

Here’s how to tell if your scorpions are bark scorpions: Only bark scorpions climb vertical surfaces. If your scorpions confine themselves to scurrying along the floor, you’re probably OK. If you’re finding them on the walls or in your drapes or climbing up the side of your house (or your leg), you’ve got a problem.

There are scorpions all over the Valley, but many of us have gone for years without ever seeing one, much less getting stung. Some people believe they are more common in areas where new housing is encroaching on the scorpions’ natural desert habitat.

Our security lights and streetlights attract bugs, which, in turn, attract scorpions. Our rock gardens and woodpiles and laundry rooms and well-watered lawns provide shelter and water. We’re the best thing that ever happened to scorpions.